Age of Mary

The Roman Catechism
Article 10 of the Creed

Index of Subjects | Translators’ Introduction | Translators’ Introduction

Catechetics during the Early Centuries
Catechetics in the Middle Ages
Catechisms in the Middle Ages
Fruits of Catechetics in the Middle Ages
Causes of the Protestant Rebellion
Counter Efforts on the Part of the Church
The Catechism of Trent
Text of the Tridentine Catechism
Commentaries and Abridgments
Authority and Excellence
Sermon Program

Introductory Introductory

The Necessity of Religious Instruction
Need of an Authoritative Catholic Catechism
The Nature of this Work
The Ends of Religious Instruction
:: Knowledge of Christ
:: Observance of the Commandments
:: Love of God
The Means Required for Religious Instruction
Instruction Should Be Accommodated to The Capacity of the Hearer
Study of the Word of God
Division of this Catechism
How This Work Is to Be Used

The Creed

The Creed

:: Necessity of Faith
:: Unity of Faith

The Creed
:: Division of the Creed

I believe in God the Father Almighty, Creator of heaven and earth; Article 1 of the Creed

:: Meaning of this Article

“I Believe”
:: Faith Excludes Doubt
:: Faith Excludes Curiosity
:: Faith Requires Open Profession

“In God”
:: Knowledge of God More Easily Obtained through Faith than through Reason
:: Knowledge of God Obtained through Faith Is Clearer
:: Knowledge of God Obtained through Faith Is More Certain
:: Knowledge of God Obtained through Faith Is More Ample and Exalted
:: The Unity of Nature in God
:: The Trinity of Persons in God

“The Father”
:: God Is Called Father Because He Is Creator and Ruler
:: God is Called Father Because He Adopts Christians through Grace
:: The Name Father Also Discloses the Plurality of Persons in God
:: The Doctrine of the Trinity
:: Practical Admonitions Concerning the Mystery of the Trinity

:: Meaning of the Term “Almighty”
:: Why Omnipotence Alone is Mentioned in the Creed
:: Advantages of Faith in God’s Omnipotence
:: Not Three Almighties but One Almighty


“Of Heaven and Earth”
:: Creation of the World of Spirits
:: Formation of the Universe
:: Production of Man

“Of all Things Visible and Invisible”

God Preserves, Rules and Moves All Created Things

Creation Is the Work of the Three Persons
and in Jesus Christ, his only Son, our Lord; Article 2 of the Creed

:: Advantages of Faith in this Article
:: Necessity of Faith in this Article



“His Only Son”

“Our Lord”
:: Duties Owed to Christ Our Lord
Who was conceived of the Holy Ghost, born of the Virgin Mary; Suffered under Pontius Pilate; was crucified, dead, and buried; He descended into hell; He ascended into heaven, sitteth at the right hand of God the Father Almighty; from thence he shall come to judge the living and the dead. I believe in the Holy Ghost; the Holy Catholic Church, the communion of saints; the forgiveness of sins; the resurrection of the body; and life everlasting.

The Sacraments

Baptism | Confirmation | The Holy Eucharist | Penance, or Confession
Extreme Unction | Holy Orders | Holy Matrimony

The Commandments

The Commandments

:: Importance of Instruction on the Commandments

Motives for Observing the Commandments
:: God Is the Giver of the Commandments
:: The Commandments Were Proclaimed with Great Solemnity
:: The Observance of the Commandments Is Not Difficult
:: The Observance of the Commandments Is Necessary
:: The Observance of the Commandments Is Attended by Many Blessings
:: God’s Goodness Invites Us to Keep His Commandments

The Promulgation of the Law
:: The People to whom the Law Was Given
:: Epitome of Jewish History
:: Lessons to be Drawn from Jewish History
:: The Time and Place in which the Law Was Promulgated

The First | Second | Third | Fourth | Fifth | Sixth | Seventh | Eighth | Ninth & Tenth

The Lord’s Prayer

Our Father, who art in heaven; hallowed by Thy name; Thy kingdom come; Thy will be done, on earth as it is in heaven; give us this day our daily bread; and forgive us our debts, as we forgive our debtors; and lead us not into temptation; but deliver us from evil; Amen.


“The Forgiveness of Sins”

Importance of this Article

Catechism of St. Pius X

Tenth Article of the Creed

1. What are we taught by the Tenth Article: The Forgiveness of sins?
The Tenth Article of the Creed teaches us that Jesus Christ has left to His Church the power of forgiving sins.

2. Can the Church forgive every sort of sin?
Yes, the Church can forgive all sins, no matter how many or how grave they may be, because Jesus Christ has given her full power to bind and to loose

3. Who exercises this power of forgiving sins in the Church?
Those who exercise the power of forgiving sins in the Church are, first of all, the Pope, who alone possesses this power in all its plenitude; then the bishops, and, dependent upon the bishops, the priests.

4. How does the Church forgive sins?
The Church forgives sins through the merits of Jesus Christ by conferring the Sacraments instituted by Him for this purpose; especially the sacraments of baptism and penance.

THE ENUMERATION of this among the other Articles of the Creed is alone sufficient to satisfy us that it conveys a truth, which is not only in itself a divine mystery, but also a mystery very necessary to salvation. We have already said that, without a firm belief of all the Articles of the Creed, Christian piety is wholly unattainable. However, should that which ought to be clear in itself seem to require the support of some authority, the declaration of our Lord will suffice. A short time previous to His Ascension into heaven, when opening the understanding of His disciples that they might understand the Scriptures, He bore testimony to this Article of the Creed, in these words: It behooved Christ to suffer, and to rise again from the dead the third day, and that penance and remission of sins should be preached, in his name, unto all nations, beginning at Jerusalem.

2 Let the pastor but weigh well these words, and he will readily perceive that the Lord has placed him under a most sacred obligation, not only of making known to the faithful whatever regards religion in general, but also of explaining with particular care this Article of the Creed.

The Church Has the Power of Forgiving Sins

3 On this point of doctrine, then, it is the duty of the pastor to teach that, not only is forgiveness of sins to be found in the Catholic Church, as Isaias had foretold in these words: The people that dwell therein shall have their iniquity taken away from them; but also that in her resides the power of forgiving sins; and furthermore that we are bound to believe that this power, if exercised duly, and according to the laws prescribed by our Lord, is such as truly to pardon and remit sins.

Extent of this Power:

All Sins that Precede Baptism

4 When we first make a profession of faith and are cleansed in holy Baptism, we receive this pardon entire and unqualified; so that no sin, original or actual, of commission or omission, re mains to be expiated, no punishment to be endured. The grace of Baptism, however, does not give exemption from all the infirmities of nature. On the contrary, contending, as each of us has to contend, against the motions of concupiscence, which ever tempts us to the commission of sin, there is scarcely one to be found among us, who opposes so vigorous a resistance to its assaults, or who guards his salvation so vigilantly, as to escape all wounds.

All Sins Committed after Baptism

5 It being necessary, therefore, that a power of forgiving sins, distinct from that of Baptism, should exist in the Church, to her were entrusted the keys of the kingdom of heaven, by which each one, if penitent, may obtain the remission of his sins, even though he were a sinner to the last day of his life. This truth is vouched for by the most unquestionable authority of the Sacred Scriptures. In St. Matthew the Lord says to Peter: I will give to thee the keys of the kingdom of heaven; and whatsoever thou shalt bind upon earth, shall be bound also in heaven; and whatsoever thou shalt loose on earth, shall be loosed also in heaven; and again: Whatsoever you shall bind upon earth, shall be bound also in heaven; and whatsoever you shall loose on earth, shall be loosed also in heaven.' Further, the testimony of St. John assures us that the Lord, breathing on the Apostles, said: Receive ye the Holy Ghost, whose sins you shall forgive they are forgiven them; and whose sins you shall retain, they are retained. '

Limitation of this Power:

It Is Not Limited as to Sins, Persons, or Time

6 Nor is the exercise of this power restricted to particular sins. No crime, however heinous, can be committed or even conceived which the Church has not power to forgive, just as there is no sinner, however abandoned, however depraved, who should not confidently hope for pardon, provided he sincerely repent of his past transgressions.

7 Furthermore, the exercise of this power is not restricted to particular times. Whenever the sinner turns from his evil ways he is not to be rejected, as we learn from the reply of our Saviour to the Prince of the Apostles. When St. Peter asked how often we should pardon an offending brother, whether seven times, Not only seven times, said the Redeemer, but till seventy times seven.

It Is Limited as to Its Ministers and Exercise

8 But if we look to its ministers, or to the manner in which it is to be exercised, the extent of this divine power will not appear so great; for our Lord gave not the power of so sacred a ministry to all, but to Bishops and priests only. The same must be said regarding the manner in which this power is to be exercised; for sins can be forgiven only through the Sacraments, when duly administered. The Church has received no power otherwise to remit sin. Hence it follows that in the forgiveness of sins both priests and Sacraments are, so to speak, the instruments which Christ our Lord, the author and giver of salvation, makes use of, to accomplish in us the pardon of sin and the grace of justification.

Greatness of this Power

9 To raise the admiration of the faithful for this heavenly gift, bestowed on the Church by God's singular mercy towards us, and to make them approach its use with the more lively sentiments of devotion the pastor should endeavour to point out the dignity and the extent of the grace which it imparts. If there be any one means better calculated than another to accomplish this end, it is carefully to show how great must be the efficacy of that which absolves from sin and restores the unjust to a state of justification.

Sin Can Be Forgiven Only by the Power of God

10 This is manifestly an effect of the infinite power of God, of that same power which we believe to have been necessary to raise the dead to life and to summon creation into existence. But if it be true, as the authority of St. Augustine assures us it is, that to recall a sinner from the state of sin to that of righteousness is even a greater work than to create the heavens and the earth from nothing, though their creation can be no other than the effect of infinite power, it follows that we have still stronger reason to consider the remission of sins as an effect proceeding from the exercise of this same infinite power.

11 With great truth, therefore, have the ancient Fathers declared that God alone can forgive sins, and that to His infinite goodness and power alone is so wonderful a work to be referred. I am he, says the Lord Himself, by the mouth of His Prophet, I am he who blotteth out your iniquities.

12 The remission of sins seems to bear an exact analogy to the cancelling of a pecuniary debt. None but the creditor can forgive a pecuniary debt. Hence, since by sin we contract a debt to God alone—wherefore we daily pray: forgive us our debts sin, it is clear, can be forgiven by Him alone, and by none else.

This Power Communicated to None before Christ

13 This wonderful and divine power was never communicated to creatures, until God became man. Christ our Saviour, although true God, was the first one who, as man, received this high prerogative from His heavenly Father. That you may know that the son of man hath power on earth to forgive sins (then said he to the man sick of the palsy), rise. take up thy bed, and go into thy house. As, therefore, He became man, in order to bestow on man this forgiveness of sins, He communicated this power to Bishops and priests in the Church, previous to His Ascension into heaven, where He sits forever at the right hand of God. Christ, however, as we have already said, remits sin by virtue of His own authority; all others, by virtue of His authority delegated to them as His ministers.

14 If, therefore, whatever is the effect of infinite power claims our highest admiration and reverence, we must readily perceive that this gift, bestowed on the Church by the bounteous hand of Christ our Lord, is one of inestimable value.

Sin Remitted through the Blood Of Christ

15 The manner too, in which God, in the fullness of His paternal clemency resolved to cancel the sins of the world must powerfully move the faithful to contemplate the greatness of this blessing. It was His will that our offences should be expiated by the blood of His Only¬≠begotten Son; that His Son should voluntarily assume the imputability of our sins, and suffer a most cruel death, the just for the unjust, the innocent for the guilty.

16 When, therefore, we reflect that we were not redeemed with corruptible things, as gold or silver, but with the precious blood of Christ, as of a lamb unspotted and undefiled, we are naturally led to conclude that we could have received no gift more salutary than this power of forgiving sins, which proclaims the ineffable Providence of God and the excess of His love towards us. This reflection must produce in all the most abundant spiritual fruit.

The Great Evil from which Forgiveness Delivers Man

17 For whoever offends God, even by one mortal sin, instantly forfeits whatever merits he may have previously acquired through the sufferings and death of Christ, and is entirely shut out from the gate of heaven which, when already closed, was thrown open to all by the Redeemer's Passion. When we reflect on this, the thought of our misery must fill us with deep anxiety. But if we turn our attention to this admirable power with which God has invested His Church; and, in the firm belief of this Article, feel convinced that to every sinner is offered the means of recovering, with the assistance of divine grace, his former dignity, we must exult with exceeding joy and gladness, and must offer immortal thanks to God.

18 If, when we are seriously ill, the medicines prepared for us by the art and industry of the physician are wont to be welcome and agreeable to us, how much more welcome and agreeable should those remedies prove which the wisdom of God has established to heal our souls and restore us to the life of grace, especially since they bring with them, not, indeed, uncertain hope of recovery, like the medicines that are applied to the body, but assured health to such as desire to be cured !


This Remedy to be Used

19 The faithful, therefore, having formed a just conception of the dignity of so excellent and exalted a blessing, should be exhorted to profit by it to the best of their ability. For he who makes no use of what is really useful and necessary must be supposed to despise it; particularly since, in communicating to the Church the power of forgiving sin, the Lord did so with the view that all should have recourse to this healing remedy. As without Baptism no one can be cleansed, so in order to recover the grace of Baptism, forfeited by actual mortal guilt, recourse must be had to another means of expiation,—namely, the Sacrament of Penance.

Abuse to be Guarded Against

20 But here the faithful are to be admonished to guard against the danger of becoming more prone to sin, or slow to repentance, from a presumption that they can have recourse to this power of forgiving sins which is so complete and, as we saw, unrestricted as to time. For, as such a propensity to sin would manifestly convict them of acting injuriously and contumaciously to this divine power, and would therefore render them unworthy of the divine mercy; so this slowness to repentance gives great reason to fear that, overtaken by death, they may in vain confess their belief in the remission of sins, which by their tardiness and procrastination they deservedly forfeited.

Romans 1:20


19 Because that which is known of God is manifest in them. For God hath manifested it unto them. 20 For the invisible things of him, from the creation of the world, are clearly seen, being understood by the things that are made; his eternal power also, and divinity: so that they are inexcusable.


19 quia quod notum est Dei, manifestum est in illis. Deus enim illis manifestavit. 20 Invisibilia enim ipsius, a creatura mundi, per ea quæ facta sunt, intellecta, conspiciuntur: sempiterna quoque eius virtus, et divinitas: ita ut sint inexcusabiles.


19  διότι τὸ γνωστὸν τοῦ θεοῦ φανερόν ἐστιν ἐν αὐτοῖς, ὁ θεὸς γὰρ αὐτοῖς ἐφανέρωσεν. 20 τὰ γὰρ ἀόρατα αὐτοῦ ἀπὸ κτίσεως κόσμου τοῖς ποιήμασιν νοούμενα καθορᾶται, ἥ τε ἀΐδιος αὐτοῦ δύναμις καὶ θειότης, εἰς τὸ εἶναι αὐτοὺς ἀναπολογήτους

Haydock Commentary

19-20 That which is known of God. Or may be easily known of God, is manifest in them. The light of reason demonstrates to them the existence of one God, the maker and preserver of all things. This is made known to them from the creation of the world, or from the creatures in the world: the Creator may be discovered by the creatures, and as St. Chrysostom here says, every Scythian, every barbarian, may come to the knowledge of God by the wonderful harmony of all things, which proclaims the existence of God louder than any trumpet: but having known him, they did not glorify him; they acted contrary to their knowledge, abandoning themselves to idolatry, and the vain worship of many gods, and to all manner of vices and abominations against the light of reason. (Witham)

Veritas | DRBO | LVBO | Haydock | Perseus

Summa Theologiæ
First Part, Question 1, Article 1.

Whether, besides philosophy, any further doctrine is required?

Argumentum 1

Objection 1. It seems that, besides philosophical science, we have no need of any further knowledge. For man should not seek to know what is above reason: “Seek not the things that are too high for thee” (Sirach 3:22). But whatever is not above reason is fully treated of in philosophical science. Therefore any other knowledge besides philosophical science is superfluous.
[Summa Theol. i. i. 1. arg. 1]

Argumentum 2

Objection 2. Further, knowledge can be concerned only with being, for nothing can be known, save what is true; and all that is, is true. But everything that is, is treated of in philosophical science—even God Himself; so that there is a part of philosophy called theology, or the divine science, as Aristotle has proved (Metaph. vi). Therefore, besides philosophical science, there is no need of any further knowledge.
[Summa Theol. i. i. 1. arg. 2]

Sed Contra

On the contrary, It is written (2 Timothy 3:16): “All Scripture, inspired of God is profitable to teach, to reprove, to correct, to instruct in justice.” Now Scripture, inspired of God, is no part of philosophical science, which has been built up by human reason. Therefore it is useful that besides philosophical science, there should be other knowledge, i.e. inspired of God.
[Summa Theol. i. i. 1. s.c.]

Corpus (Respondeo)

I answer that, It was necessary for man’s salvation that there should be a knowledge revealed by God besides philosophical science built up by human reason. Firstly, indeed, because man is directed to God, as to an end that surpasses the grasp of his reason: “The eye hath not seen, O God, besides Thee, what things Thou hast prepared for them that wait for Thee” (Isaiah 64:4). But the end must first be known by men who are to direct their thoughts and actions to the end. Hence it was necessary for the salvation of man that certain truths which exceed human reason should be made known to him by divine revelation. Even as regards those truths about God which human reason could have discovered, it was necessary that man should be taught by a divine revelation; because the truth about God such as reason could discover, would only be known by a few, and that after a long time, and with the admixture of many errors. Whereas man’s whole salvation, which is in God, depends upon the knowledge of this truth. Therefore, in order that the salvation of men might be brought about more fitly and more surely, it was necessary that they should be taught divine truths by divine revelation. It was therefore necessary that besides philosophical science built up by reason, there should be a sacred science learned through revelation.
[Summa Theol. i. i. 1. co.]

Adversus 1

Reply to Objection 1. Although those things which are beyond man’s knowledge may not be sought for by man through his reason, nevertheless, once they are revealed by God, they must be accepted by faith. Hence the sacred text continues, “For many things are shown to thee above the understanding of man” (Sirach 3:25). And in this, the sacred science consists.
[Summa Theol. i. i. 1. ad. 1]

Adversus 2

Reply to Objection 2. Sciences are differentiated according to the various means through which knowledge is obtained. For the astronomer and the physicist both may prove the same conclusion: that the earth, for instance, is round: the astronomer by means of mathematics (i.e. abstracting from matter), but the physicist by means of matter itself. Hence there is no reason why those things which may be learned from philosophical science, so far as they can be known by natural reason, may not also be taught us by another science so far as they fall within revelation. Hence theology included in sacred doctrine differs in kind from that theology which is part of philosophy.
[Summa Theol. i. i. 1. ad. 2]



Published by Command of Pope St. Pius the Fifth. Translated into English with notes by John A. McHugh, O.P. and Charles J. Callan, O.P.

V.F. O'Daniel, O.P., S.T.M.
T.M. Schwertner, O.P., S.T.Lr.

J.R. Meagher, O.P., S.T.Lr.

A.J. Scanlan, S.T.D.

Patritius J. Hayes